1. The presence of teratogens during pregnancy creates the risk of problems in
development. Your textbook identifies several principles that govern the
relationship between teratogens and normal development. List and describe
three of those principles.
2. Describe Piaget’s four stages of cognitive development. Include in your
description the major hallmarks of each stage.
3. Discuss object permanence. Be sure to include its relationship to other areas
of development.
4. Five-year-old Michela appears to be talking to herself as she is putting
together a tea party with several of her dolls. Describe Vygotsky’s take on
this behavior (e.g., Is this normal behavior? Is this a helpful behavior? Will
this behavior go away?).
5. In intelligence testing, explain the terms mental age (MA), chronological age
(CA) and intelligence quotient (IQ)
6. What are the four basic types of attachment described by Bowlby and
Ainsworth? Include effects on later life.
7. What is the difference between instrumental, hostile, and relational
aggression? Give an example of each type of aggression. Also, who are most
likely to be victimized by such bullies?
8. Discuss the four phases of identity formation, as presented by Marcia. Make
sure that you list each phase and comment on what is likely to happen in
that phase.

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