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CONTEMPORARY PROJECT MANAGEMENT, 4E

Timothy J. KloppenborgVittal Anantatmula

Kathryn N. Wells

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Leading and Managing Project Teams

Chapter 5

Chapter 5 Core Objectives:

• Describe stages of team development and strategies to move teams

through the project life cycle.

• Describe characteristics of a high-performing project team; assess your

team and how it can improve.

• Describe methods of team decision-making and when each type is most

effective.

© 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a licensedistributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

Chapter 5 Behavioral Objectives:

• Explain how to utilize and improve the project team relationship.

• Describe types of project management power and when each is appropriate.

• Describe sources of project conflict, how to resolve conflict, and a negotiating

process.

• Summarize how to develop high-performance traditional and virtual teams.

© 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a licensedistributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

Gallup Consulting

“Gallup has studied more than 6 million people, and we have found that individuals have much more potential for growth and productivity in areas of great talent than areas of weakness…A strengths-based approach improves team cohesion and generates better results. We have found that high-performing teams are more likely to match individuals’ talents to assigned tasks and emphasize individual strengths versus seniority in making personnel decisions.”

Jim Asplund, Gallup Consulting

Acquiring the Project Team

• Pre-assignment of Project Team Members

• Negotiation for Project Team Members

• On-Boarding Project Team Members

Acquire project team – “the process of confirming humanresource availability and obtaining the team necessary tocomplete project assignments.” PMBOK® Guide

Acquiring the Project Team

• Some core team members may be added after planning

• Subject matter experts (SMEs) may be added after planning

• Acquiring the project team involves pre-assignment, negotiation, and on-boarding.

Pre-assignment of Project Team Members

• Include the implementers in planning when possible

More details may be considered

Greater buy-in and enthusiasm

Ensures they are available when needed

• Bringing SMEs on board early may be costly

Negotiation for Project Team Members

• PM may need to negotiate with the functional manager

• Develop good relationships with functional managers

• Most projects will have a combination of experienced and inexperienced resources

• PMs may need to persuade a worker to work on their project.

• PM wants to sell the person on the project.

• Core team members often need to be excellent generalists

• May need to recruit outside the parent organization

Recruiting Team Members from Outside of the Organization

On-Boarding Project Team Members

• On-board core team members during chartering

• Ensure members understand the project at a high level  enthusiastic

• Learn members’ personal motives

• Assign members to specific activities

• Develop a plan for members’ personal improvement

*See Exhibit 5.2

Develop Project Team

• Stages of Project Team Development

• Characteristics of High-Performing Project Teams

• Assessing Individual Member Capability

• Assessing Project Team Capability

• Building Individual and Project Team Capability

• Establishing Project Team Ground Rules

Project Team Progression Through Development Stages

• Forming – develop team operating methods

• Storming – stress at the magnitude of the project

• Norming – feel part of the team

• Performing – feel close to team mates

• Adjourning – feeling of loss when team disbands

*See Exhibits 5.3 & 5.4

Stages of Project Team Development

• Most teams will still spend at least some time in most stages

• Some teams get “stalled” in an early stage and do not progress

• Setbacks for project teams can occur

• PM can help team through stages by understanding relationship issues and tendencies

Develop project team – “the process of improving the competencies, team interaction, and overall team environment to enhance project performance.” PMBOK® Guide

Characteristics of High-Performing Project Teams

 Ideals toward which PM guides team

 Useful tool = Project charter

• High need for achievement

• Understanding/acceptance of responsibility

• Commitment to self-directed behavior

• Put project needs before their own needs

• Willingness to consider alternative views

• Personal commitment to project.

Characteristics – Personal Values

Characteristics – Team Behavior Methods

• The right skill mix

• Help each other

• Constant focus on improvement

• Effective time and meeting management

• Strive for innovation

• Capture, share, and use lessons learned

Characteristics – Communications Methods

• Share information freely and widely

• Discuss important topics openly

• Report potential problems proactively

• Conduct frequent debriefings

• Overcome barriers

• Conflict over approaches is okay; personal conflict is not

Characteristics – Project Methods

• Agree on common goals and objectives

• Jointly plan the project

• Use charter to guide joint decision making

• Work together to accomplish activities.

• Proactively identify/ solve problems.

• Hold each other mutually accountable

Characteristics – Feelings For Team Members

• Recognize interdependence

• Show flexibility for how members contribute to the project

• Share risks with teammates & tolerate minor mistakes

• Understand, appreciate, like, & trust each other

• Share in strong project leadership

Characteristics – Personal Rewards

• Enjoyment of work

• High spirit & team morale

• Pride in being part of the team

• Satisfaction in project accomplishments

Characteristics – Project Results

• Persevering despite challenges

• Producing high-quality results

• Consistently meeting or exceeding stakeholder expectations

Characteristics-Agile teams

Agile teams are:

• Self-managed

• Focused on project goals

• Strong communicators

• Able to make decisions quickly

• Responsible

• Willing to trust their instincts

7 Desirable traits of Agile teams:1. Question everything2. Focus on innovation3. Fail their way to success4. Communicate thoughts & ideas5. Deliver value6. Change incrementally7. Connect with their purpose

Assessing Individual Member Capability

1. Activity-specific knowledge and skills

2. Personal planning and control

3. Personal learning

4. Organizational understanding

5. Interpersonal skills and sensitivity

Necessary to be strongindividual performers

Necessary to be valuable team players

Assessing Project Team Capability *See Exhibit 5.7

• Project teams with strong leadership are more likely to be successful

• Effective team leadership leads to mutual trust, respect, & credibility

• Cross-functional cooperation & support helps guide project through turbulent times

• Planning & executing effective two-way communications is a major key to success

• Staff the project with a combination of experienced & less-experienced members

• People work hard and enthusiastically if they find their work stimulating & believe they will be rewarded for it.

Building Individual and Project Team Capability

1. Demonstrate personal leadership.

2. Utilize project management tools.

3. Demand situational leadership.

4. Create a desirable team identity.

5. Teach personal responsibility.

6. Develop understanding & respect.

7. Use a learning cycle.

Project Team Capability Building Cycle

Cycle repeated: Within project stages At key milestones From project to

project

Establishing Project Team Ground Rules

Ground rules are acceptable

behaviors adopted by a project

team to improve working

relationships, effectiveness, &

communication.

Manage Project Team

Managing & Leading Project team includes:Keeping tabs on what is happening

Assessing human performance in comparison with plans

Taking action to get team back (or keep it) on track

Motivating individuals & team as a whole

Improving continually methods used

Improving continually participants’ capability & satisfaction

Manage Project Team

• Project Manager Power & Leadership

• Assessing Performance of Individuals & Project Teams

• Project Team Management Outcomes

Manage project team – “the process of tracking team

Member performance, providing feedback, resolving

issues, and coordinating changes to optimize project

performance.” PMBOK® Guide

Project Manager Power and Leadership

• PMs often have less legitimate power than other managers.

• Stimulating work is a powerful reward.

• Team members may work for PM out of personal desire.

• PM’s reputation for success may encourage hard work.

• Distribute information promptly & accurately according to the communication plan.

• PMs can use the power of the sponsor when necessary.

Types of Project Manager Power

Breakout session!

Give an example you have seen of each type of power described in Exhibit 5.10

Assessing Performance of Individuals & Project Teams

• Goals of performance assessments• Rewards & promotions

• Determination of areas for improvement.

• Assessment can be informal & formal• Informal – observing, asking questions, providing suggestions.

• Formal – responsibility of the direct manager (PM should offer input!).

Project Team Management Outcomes

PM power, communication,

appraisal, management

How much detail is needed?

Poor appraisals, insufficient progress,

conflict,reassignment

Project Team Management Outcomes

Coercive power as last resort

Living documentDocumented

Relationship Building Within the Core Team

Share learning Share

enjoyment

Share motives

Celebrate

success

Encourage

communicationJointly establish

agendas

Use appropriate decision making

strategies

© 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom

use.

Project Decision-Making Guide

© 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom

use.

Managing Project Conflicts

• Sources of Project Conflict

• Conflict Resolution Process & Styles

• Negotiation

Sources of Project Conflict

Sources of Project Conflict

• Conflict over how to proceed• Conflict over how to complete a project• Competition for ideas

• Personal conflict• Deal with conflict on projects promptly—or even proactively.• Relationship conflict• Prolonged Task conflict

Conflict Resolution Process

1. Understand the conflict.

2. Agree on conflict-resolution goals.

3. Identify causes of conflict.

4. Identify potential solutions for conflict.

5. Pick desired conflict solution.

6. Implement chosen solution.

Styles of Handling Project Conflict

Breakout Session!

1. Identify & categorize conflicts that have happened on your projects.

2. Describe how conflict was resolved & if you think you could have used an alternate conflict resolution style.

Negotiation

• About redefining a relationship that is not working or establishing new relationship

• Project managers are accountable for performance  not people

• Everyone the PM negotiates with has their own set of issues & goals.

• Project management tools make negotiation easier

• Negotiate towards a win-win solution.

Negotiation Process

Virtual Teams (also known as “Distributed Teams”)

• Team members are physically dispersed

• Time boundaries are crossed

• Communication technologies are used (rarely meet in person)

• Cultural, organizational, age, gender, & functional diversity are present

Challenges for Virtual and Global Project Teams

Summary

• New project team members need to be on-boardedPreferable to have core team help with planning/chartering

SME’s generally only included as-needed

• PMs use understanding of development stages to guide their team to better performance.

• Employ ground rules for improving relationships & processes

• PMs monitor & control the human side of the project.

• PM often lacks legitimate power & must rely on other forms of power

• PMs use general conflict reduction techniques

• Virtual and global teams add communication challenges• Different cultures offer communication challenges

• Consider appropriate communications technologies

PMBOK Exams

• Most “soft skill” questions will pertain to a mock scenario, so be ready to apply techniques & best practices from this chapter

• Any time you are asked about making a change to a project after the charter has been ratified (meaning you are beyond the Initiating project phase), the correct answer will be related to using the integrated change process…in other words, never agree to a change at this point without going through the proper procedure first!

Casa de Paz Development Project

• What actions can guide the team through stages of team development?

• What would be helpful to include in a team charter and why?

• Construct a RACI chart with major tasks and the type of person to do each.

• List decisions that will need to be made and the person or method you suggest for making each.

Centralizing Planning and Control After Many Acquisitions

• HR created a process improvement team

• Communication plan was drafted and a conference held to develop buy-in

• Schedule reflected the high-level WBS

• Centers of Excellence were identified

• Workshop artifacts were used to define the “as is” and “to be” process states

• New design presented for implementation and buy-in

PM IN ACTION

Centralizing Planning and Control After AcquisitionsPM IN ACTION

Recognize

Forming, Storming,

Norming,

Performing stages

Create a strong

vision

Seek

requirements from

customers

Maintain

consistent

sponsorship

Respect, empower,

and engage all in a

change initiative

Leverage the

value of diversity

Communicate –

make everything

an open book

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