Please respond to each discussion post. As an educational opportunity, respond to two of your peers who chose two different topics and briefly summarize a scholarly article related to the topic that provides additional information to the discussion. Utilize at least two scholarly references (the scholarly article you are summarizing and one additional reference) per peer post.Discussion Post 1: Topic “Screening tools”(Carmen) :Health promotion is the process of giving individuals the ability to exert more control over their own health and its determinants through literacy initiatives and multisectoral actions to promote healthy habits. This process includes activities for the general public or for groups at higher risk of poor health outcomes (World Health Organization [WHO], n.d.). Health promotion typically focuses on topics such as mental health, injury prevention, drug abuse control, alcohol control, health behavior related to HIV, and sexual health in addition to behavioral risk factors like smoking, obesity, diet, and physical inactivity (WHO, n.d.). Disease prevention, on the other hand, is defined as targeted, population-based, and individual-based interventions for primary and secondary (early detection) prevention, with the goal of reducing disease burden and risk factors (WHO, n.d.). Primary prevention is the term used to describe actions made to lessen the likelihood that a disease will spread in the future. Its goal is to prevent a disease or harmful health condition from developing before it manifests. (Shi & Singh, 2022). At this level screening tools that should be used in most healthcare settings include screening for immunizations, screening for tobacco, alcohol, and drug use, and screenings for HIV/Hep C. Secondary prevention has to do with the early detection and treatment of disease (Shi & Singh, 2022). At this level screening tools that should be used in most healthcare settings are screenings for hypertension, cancers (cervical, breast, colorectal), screening for anxiety, and depression (Centers for Disease Control [CDC], 2017). In addition to screening for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) in patients with HIV, screening for risky sexual behaviors in patients with HIV (U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, 2018). There are many objectives that disease prevention and health promotion share, and their respective roles frequently overlap. On a theoretical level, it is helpful to distinguish between health promotion services, which rely on intersectoral efforts and/or are focused on the social determinants of health, and disease prevention services, which are predominantly focused on the healthcare sector (WHO, n.d.).The three screening tools I use daily when engaging with patients are: 1) THRIVE, which is a social determinant of health screener tool for primary care patients that helps to identify and address patients’ unmet social needs, as well as, facilitating an automatic print out when an automatic print out of referral information for resources based at the hospital and in the community when the patient requests assistance with a need identified in the screener (Boston Medical Center [BMC], 2019). 2) The patient health questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and the generalized anxiety disorder questionnaire-7 (GAD-7) are screening tools used to identify signs of anxiety and depression. I combined the two screeners since I work with homeless individuals who are more likely to have chronic and co-occurring illnesses, and mental and substance use disorders and they may also be suffering from trauma, and homeless children are more likely to have emotional and behavioral issues (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration [SAMHSA], 2020). 3) Screening for immunizations, this also includes screening for tuberculosis. Because people experiencing homelessness live in crowded shelters, they are exposed to communicable diseases such as tuberculosis, influenza, hepatitis A, meningitis, and COVID-19. Immunizations play an important role in preventing those diseases.Discussion Post 2 Topic: Mental health careJordan:Mental health is not widely accepted as part of health care. The concept of mental health was established late in the 1800s and was not recognized globally until the World Health Organization (WHO) listed it in its definition of health in 1946 (Murdaugh et al., 2019; World Health Organization [WHO], 2022). The lack of societal acceptance to recognize mental health as foundational to personal health creates barriers to accessing mental health care services. Barriers such as stigma, access, and affordability are common hurdles to seeking mental health treatment.A stigma continues to exist surrounding mental health care. Although the WHO recognizes mental health as a pillar of personal health, the message has not been disseminated to the general public. People continue to disregard seeking mental health care for fear of backlash from their employer, negative perception from their community, unnecessary prescriptions, and fear of being committed to a mental institute (Mojtabai, 2021). This stigma will continue until people of power and influence begin normalizing the conversation.Once stigma is no longer a barrier, the issue of accessibility becomes a hurdle. Accessibility can be viewed through the lens of health insurance and physical location. Lack of health insurance is a barrier to seeking mental health care, especially among communities of color (Okoro et al., 2022). Okoro et al. (2022) further state that those with health insurance are unaware of their options to access mental health care which speaks to the racial inequity of this population. This supports Mojtabai (2021) findings which concluded that a significant barrier to accessing mental health care was a lack of knowledge of where to find help. Health care in all forms needs to be more accessible; however, greater importance of mental health care access needs to be addressed. Telehealth continues to be a common solution for mental health access. While this is a viable solution for some, I would argue that any population living in poverty or a rural area may not have internet access, thereby negating the telehealth option.Removing stigma and access as hurdles, affordability becomes a barrier. Mental health care should not be for the rich or those lucky enough to have it covered by their private health insurance. If mental health is truly a pillar of overall health, as stated by the WHO, it should be included in all insurance plans or covered by a public option. The Affordable Care Act (ACA) granted mental health insurance to many uninsured and low-income people; however, millions continue to be left uninsured (Rochefort, 2018). The ACA is also misleading in its presentation. The policy does stipulate mental health coverage, but that does not mean mental health professionals must accept insurance. It is estimated that of psychiatrists accepting new patients, only half accept insurance (Benson et al., 2020). As a result, those seeking mental health treatment are forced to go out of network at greater personal cost (Benson & Song, 2020). These studies demonstrate that having health insurance does not grant access to mental health treatment.In my community, I see all of these barriers. There is a large population of independent contractors who do not have health insurance and feel it is a sign of weakness. These people live in financial hardship and are unable to afford or access mental health treatment. For those who are willing to seek treatment, it is not well publicized where to go for help. Furthermore, the new mental health facility that is being built is specifically for the rich and is being marketed as such. Vail is notorious for catering to the rich and disregarding the people who actually make the town run. Access to mental health care is no exception.

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