Please read my discussion post with my classmates reply and question. Please reply to the classmates response and question with 100-250 words. Due tomorrow 3pm.

My discussion with answers:

1. Summarize why the authors think reflective thinking is an important aspect of making decisions related to digital technology and privacy.

According to the authors, reflective thinking is a vital condition of decision-making about privacy and digitizedinnovation because it offers a viable alternative to handle the complication of confidentiality and confidentiality optionsand, as a result, could be motivated to alleviate confidentialityforfeiture caused by poor or incorrect decisions.

It begins with recognizing that current assumptions must be (re)examined, which is triggered by a perplexing situation. Following this first phase, the reflective thinking exercisecarries on with what may be summed up as an investigationinto what produced the perplexing difficulty, for example, by critically analyzing one’s existing assumptions or investigating potential answers.

Individuals employ previous episodes and previousunderstanding, referred to as frames of reference, to continuously make sense of the world. Frames of reference include mental habits and subsequent frames of view.(Terpstra et al. 5). Habits of mind are intense and “broad, abstract, orienting, habitual ways of thinking, feeling, and acting, influenced by assumptions that constitute a set of codes” (Terpstra et al. 5) and include epistemic,psychological, sociolinguistic, philosophical, moral-ethical, and aesthetic dimensions of one’s identity, amongst others.(Terpstra et al., 5). Habits of mind are articulated as opinions, defined as “the constellation of belief, memory, value judgment, attitude, and feeling that produces a particular interpretation.”

Critical reflection becomes (transformative) learning when it is utilized to influence decision-making or action. Transformative learning encompasses two forms of knowledge: instrumental learning and experiential studying, which is goal-directed and focuses on precise skills/steps for controlling and manipulating the environs, and informative, which is concerned with the sense behind actions and words. Finally, the reflective thinking exercise ends with a re-evaluation and an analysis of one’s hypotheses, which results in alterations in attitudes, beliefs, and behavior.

Reflection is essential in both instrumental and communicative learning. Hypotheses are created and empirically validated in instrumental learning. (Terpstra et al. 6). This method cannot be employed in communicative learning. Instead, in this case, “meaning is validated through critical discourse” (Terpstra et al. 6), which inevitably reflects more extensive patterns of relationship and power.

2. Describe what the authors mean when they propose that friction be introduced into technology interfaces.

When the writers recommend introducing friction into technology interfaces, they mean that friction improves interfaces and assists users in reaching their goals. In addition to drawing user attention to behavior, friction can be utilized to attract awareness to the person’s fundamental values, beliefs, presumptions, and sentiments, inspiring reflective thought.

The authors argue that using friction as a fundamental design principle encourages reflective thinking and brings the privacy argument back into the public eye.

3. Choose an app or program you have recently installed on your phone or computer and explain how the programmers could tweak the installation process or how the app or program works to encourage more reflective thinking about personal privacy by the user.

Installed on my computer is Google Chrome. Google realizes the value of customer confidentiality and is implementing measures to safeguard users and offer them extra choice over how their information is utilized and while it is gathered.

Google works to encourage more reflective thinking about personal privacy through strengthening privacy for smart home devices, limiting data sharing by third-party cookies, and improving privacy controls.

Google is making inroads into the smart home market with a reaffirmed emphasis on Nest as its essential intelligent home brand. The focus on privacy and security is a significant component of that approach.

Google is experimenting with several methods to limit the usage of third-party cookies in the Chrome browser. One way allows the end-user to quickly differentiate between third- and first-party cookies and restrict the former. A furtherexperiment limits third-party cookie distribution to websites that utilize the encrypted HTTPS code.

Your connections with Google merchandise such as Gmail, Google Assistant, the Chrome browser, YouTube, and Maps are visible and controllable. You can enable or disable information collection for wider classifications such as app activity or browser and location history. If you do not feel likegoing that far, you can remove your history for particular interactions or goods that you do not prefer Google to preserve.

4. Finally, do you think that the solution proposed in this article would help personal data be used in more ethical ways by big corporations? Why or why not?

The principled use of information is more profound than simple statutory conformity. Businesses are becoming aware of new realities in which end users-and, even their own workers-need them to, put a brake on how much informationthey clear out and how they use it. I believe the solution proposed in this article would help big corporations use personal information in more ethical ways. Companies must realize that they are responsible for promoting transparency and preventing misuse of personal data.

Consumers place a high value on data privacy and protection, and organizations must think carefully about how they control and safeguard end-user information to operate responsibly. This includes gathering only the information needed, avoiding harming the environment and individuals, and gaining direct consent for information gathering. If privacy infractions contribute to data breaches, they cost money. Focussing on principles can help firms outdistance legislation, restrict confidentiality-related public relations crises, and reduce future costs.


Terpstra, Arnout, et al. “Improving privacy choice through design: How designing for reflection could support privacy self-management.” First Monday (2019).

Classmates Question:

I am impressed by the level of detail here. I was particularly taken with your explanation of how critical reflection becomes transformative learning. I think that introducing a process that interrupts the user from blindly agreeing to “click away” their privacy is a very good idea. The process of transformative learning — (1) having experiences; (2) making assumptions; (3) challenging perspectives; and (4) experiencing transformative learning indicates that such a tool might leverage the “challenge of perspective” or the creation of some cognitive dissonance perhaps. It is nice to see people thinking about how to use channels in human psychology for a good cause, I admit. Can you think of any other ways that we might leverage transformative learning in technology to benefit others?




Wyant, Brian R., and Brian Lockwood. “Transformative Learning, Higher Order Thinking, and the Inside-Out Prison Exchange Program.” Journal of Correctional Education, vol. 69, no. 3, Dec. 2018, pp. 49–67. EBSCOhost

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