In Early Fall, a neonatal nurse in a large metropolitan hospital became ill with cough and fever. His physician believed he had seasonal allergies and treated him with anti-allergic medications. He returned to work. Three weeks later his condition worsened, and he had shortness of breath and bloody sputum. Upon questioning, his physician noted that he was a native of South Africa. He had a positive skin test for tuberculosis and always thought it was because of his TB vaccine and his chest X-ray had always been clear. This time however, his sputum tested positive for acid-fast bacilli. He was diagnosed with active tuberculosis. He was restricted from work and placed in isolation for 6 weeks. But during those 3 weeks, he had exposed 900 patients including 620 newborns to TB.
a) Describe the signs and symptoms of tuberculosis.
b) What is the mode of transmission of this disease?
c) What is the pathogen that causes TB. How did the doctor know that it might be TB?
d) How can physicians assess their patients quickly if they have an infectious disease?
e) What policies should be in place at hospitals to protect patients from exposure to infectious staff members?
In October, discussions in a small town in Louisiana centered on dramatic world events, especially terrorism. However, an outbreak of
pneumonia in 33 people from their community within a single week changed the talk in the coffee shops and community center.
Epidemiologists with the state Department of Health began examining the patients for the most common causes of pneumonia in adults: the
bacterial species Streptococcus pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae and influenza viruses and adenoviruses. The patients were negative for all of these pathogens, and they contacted the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Basic
epidemiological strategy is to look for factors common to those infected but not common in nonvictims that match the victims in age,
geographical location, and similar factors. One factor the scientists noticed was that patients were more likely to have shopped at a particular grocery store before becoming hospitalized. This is puzzling, because while one might expect foodborne infections to be related to a grocery
store, what would be a link for pneumonia?
Imagine you are on the field team of the CDC sent to investigate this outbreak.
a) What first steps would you take to solve this mystery?
b) How would you isolate and identify the cause of the pneumonia?
Taxonomists classify Zika virus in the family Flavidiriae, which includes small, enveloped, spherical viruses with genomes of single-stranded RNA. Flaviviruses cause many human diseases, such as yellow fever and dengue fever. Mosquitos can carry Zika virus, but unlike other
arboviruses, Zika virus can also be transmitted sexually. There are no drugs approved by the FDA to treat Zika infection, and there is no
vaccine. Fortunately, symptoms are often mild, including fever, rash, joint pain, and red eyes. The greatest danger is to unborn children. If a
pregnant mother is infected, the virus can pass to her unborn child and can cause a serious birth defect called microcephaly, resulting in
incomplete brain development. Physicians confirm suspected Zika infection by identifying specific antibodies against Zika virus in the blood of patients or by detection of viral RNA in the woman’s urine or blood. Without treatment, prevention is the only defense. Use of mosquito
repellent and nets along with elimination of standing water, where Aedes mosquitoes breed, are most effective. For Americans, caution should be taken in traveling to countries with current Zika outbreaks.
What is the role of mosquitos in spreading the virus to and among humans?
Why do viruses often spread rapidly when first introduced to a new area?
Based on your knowledge of viral replication, describe how zika virus replicates in the human body (Remember to look up replication of animal viruses).
All answers detailed and of quality. A minimum of 3 citations are required for your written assignment. Scientific journals should be cited in APA format. Please use the following resources for citations:
Microbiology with Diseases by Taxonomy 6th Edition, Robert Bauman
Question 1: Case Study: In Early Fall, a neonatal nurse in a large metropolita – graduate researcher