The population health segments include maternal and child/ infant health, major chronic illnesses, mental illnesses, acute illnesses, and end-of-life. The maternal and child/ infant health concerns the conditions affecting the mothers and their children. These include antenatal care, intra-natal care, postnatal care, and immunizations of the child post-delivery (Chong et al., 2019, P 13). Major chronic illnesses are the common chronic illnesses developing within a longer time. These conditions are associated with individuals' lifestyles and cause serious complications. They include hypertension and diabetes.
Mental illnesses cause mental disturbance among individuals affected. The majority of the conditions might not be life-threatening; however, they require treatment. These conditions include schizophrenia and depression. Acute illnesses develop over a short time and require urgent treatment. These conditions are severe and life-threatening, including pneumonia. In addition, the diseases can be contagious and spread to the other population (Yan et al., 2019, P 117). Therefore, they might require isolation and contact tracing to control the condition among the people. End-of-life refers to individuals with chronic illnesses at the late stages of the disease. Therefore, they undergo grief and loss and require palliative care and end-of-life support and care.
It is essential to know the population health segments while researching or conducting development in population health. The knowledge about population segments helps improve the specific group treatments by promoting patient outcomes (Yoon et al., 2020, P 18). Population segments also help in budgets and planning of resources based on the populations' details in terms of common conditions present. The focus on the general population advances both research and medical care. The availability of data on the population segments provides information about the health status of a general population. The data is essential in choosing a suitable research topic based on the identified problems of the people.
Chong, J. L., Lim, K. K., & Matchar, D. B. (2019). Population segmentation based on healthcare needs: a systematic review. Systematic Reviews, 8(1) 2-19.
Yan, S., Kwan, Y. H., Thumboo, J., & Low, L. L. (2019). Characteristics and health care utilization of different segments of a multiethnic Asian population in Singapore. JAMA network open, 2(9), P 117.
Yoon, S., Goh, H., Kwan, Y. H., Thumboo, J., & Low, L. L. (2020). Identifying optimal indicators and purposes of population segmentation through the engagement of key stakeholders: a qualitative study. Health Research Policy and Systems, 18(1) 17-24.
The segments of population health include the healthy population, acutely ill, minor chronic illnesses, chronic illnesses, and mental illnesses. The healthy population refers to individuals with no health problems or issues. This portion of the population does not require any medical treatment; however, it may need to take preventive precautions to reduce the risk of disease occurrence. The acutely ill population are individuals suffering from acute illnesses, diseases occurring within a short period, and may need urgent treatment in the healthcare facilities (Chong et al., 2019, P 11). These individuals require attention since acute illnesses occur within a short time, can be contagious and life-threatening.
Minor chronic illnesses are minor conditions that take time before their signs and symptoms are manifested. These individuals do not require urgent treatment; however, the conditions need to be prevented. Therefore, preventive measures should be taken to avoid the diseases' development and progression. Chronic illnesses develop over a long period, with severe effects on the body systems (Sirgy, 2021, P 637). The complications of the diseases are adverse and fatal, hence life-threatening.
Health education and awareness of preventive measures such as a healthy lifestyle are essential in preventing chronic illnesses (Chong et al., 2019, P 17). Mental illness is a segment in the population referring to the illnesses that affect the mental health functioning of an individual. This condition affects the wellness of an individual and the community/ population at large. Therefore, the conditions require treatment to restore the well-being of these individuals, although mental illnesses may not be an emergency.
It is essential to know the population segments while conducting development or research in population health since this gives an overview of the population's outlook. The population segments are crucial in identifying the areas to put more effort into while conducting research or development. The population segments give the population's health status and guide the distribution of the resources across the population groups (admin, 2020, P28).
admin. (2020). How – and why – to get started with population segmentation analysis. Imperial College Health Partners P 28.
Chong, J. L., Lim, K. K., & Matchar, D. B. (2019). Population segmentation based on healthcare needs: a systematic review. Systematic Reviews, 8(1) P 2-19.
Sirgy, M. J. (2021). The Wellbeing of Geographic Population Segments. In The Psychology of Quality of Life (pp. 627-655). Springer, Cham.