With support of the reading Chapter: Matthew Restall and Kris Lane, ‘Black Communities,’ in Latin America in Colonial Times (2018), 169-192. Restall and Lane, Black Communities Answer this post. Your response to the post should have a collegial, analytical, and and helpful tone–not merely express unqualified approval or agreement, or mere disapproval or disagreement. Instead, offer an analysis of the assigned material, discuss relevant issues, and try to examine ideas and interpretations thoroughly and professionally.
Black communities emerged tremendously through the Middle passage because more than 11 million enslaved Africans between the fifteen and nineteenth centuries. Europeans treated Africans as livestock and inhumanely in the text Matthew Restall and Kris Lane’s “Black Communities” from Latin America in Colonial Times it states, “Documents suggest that overall between 10 and 20 percent of enslaved passengers died on their way to the Americas (page 171).” This emphasizes the brutality they have faced since many died through disease, malnutrition, and neglect. Moreover, the text states “Some of the enslaved killed themselves in desperation during the Middle passage, and a few attacked and killed crew members (page 171). I deem that this indicates how frustrated and tormented Africans faced during this journey toward the Americas.
Slavery in the Americas took root in the early colonial times. The Portuguese dominated the slave trade in the 17th century. The English dominated the slave trade in later centuries, bringing more slaves to American colonies than the Portuguese had. The African slave trade was very costly, “thus it proved to be profitable only in zones of intense exploitation of exportable resources, or where slaves could be trained in a lucrative skill, such as carpentry. African slaves in the Americas fell into two broad categories: mass slaves and auxiliary slaves (page 172)”. Indeed many slaves were mass slaves that were forced to do labor in gold mines and sugar plantations. Whereas, auxiliary slaves were a part of the service sector by posing as intermediaries between Spaniards and native workers.
Due to mass slavery in plantations and in other workforces slaves were incorporated which created a term historians use called “slave societies. However, the auxiliary term is called “societies with slaves”. The “mass slave” the master-slave relations was a model for all slave relations to try to prevent revolt. The difference between the “mass” and “auxiliary” slaves created the rise of social and economic distinctions based on race, color, and class in different colonial regions. It divided the sectors and values of who is superior as a slave. Since auxiliary slaves were treated slightly better than mass slaves.
The relationship between Natives and Africans was complex due to development in colonial societies. Many worked together and did day-to-day activities with one another. Many auxiliary Africans related and adapted to religious cultures and life. Hence, many still faced persecution by being killed by natives over resentment. For instance, on page 173, “Portuguese masters attempted to preempt rebellion by dividing slaves among themselves, creating distinctions and ranks that helped to prevent solidarity. One method of division was to treat newly arrived enslaved people as uncultured beasts, to be ridiculed and made to perform the dirtiest and most physically demanding tasks”. The Portuguese were very critical of how they navigated slaves to not risk any revolts and rebellions.

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